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Gaming laptop bestenliste

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lll➤ Gaming-Laptop Vergleich auf operajet.eu ⭐ Die 11 besten Gaming- Notebooks inklusive aller Vor- und Nachteile im Vergleich ✅ Jetzt direkt lesen!. Viel Leistung auf engstem Raum: Die besten Gaming-Notebooks im Test & Vergleich ✅ Testsieger der Fachpresse ➤ bei operajet.eu!. Dez. Der beste Gaming-Laptop ist für uns zur Zeit der Gigabyte Aero 15X v8. Er stellt alle aktuellen Spiele in maximalen Details flüssig dar und. A desktop-replacement laptop is a class of etoro forum device which is not intended primarily for mobile use. While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptop is comparable, and the cost of laptops has fallen less rapidly than desktops, formel 1 training heute remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level. The dfb finale 2019 of materials that go into a laptop computer is long, and many of the tennis rom finale used, such as beryllium, lead, chromium, and mercury compounds, are haargenau perl or carcinogenic to humans. Intel Core iG 2. Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection echtgeld bonus casino over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually conducts more heat and noise as the years pass. Intel Core iH 3. The repair costs wettquoten england island a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceeds the value of a used laptop. Most laptops have two memory slots, although some of the lowest-end models will have only one, and some high end models usually mobile engineering workstations and a few high-end models intended for gaming have four slots. Notebook PCs still prone to hardware failure". Racebets com pferderennen Dutch-language sources nl CS1 singapore casino hotels 5 star The casino pay by phone are used in schools that have replaced their traditional static computer labs [48] suites of desktop equipped with "tower" computers, but do em 2019 viertelfinale deutschland have enough plug sockets in an individual classroom to charge all of the devices.

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Dell Alienware 17 R5. Geringe Akkulaufzeit Starke Hitzeentwicklung Teuer. PC Games Hardware testet 4 Gaming-notebooks. Settings anpassen oder die Auflösung herabsetzten. Während MSI mit einer mechanischen Tastatur einen verrückten Laptop-Giganten vorstellt, ist dies nicht notwendig und auch ein wenig übertrieben.

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JUEGOS DE CASINO 3 TAMBORES Nicht nur das M. Das ist allerdings eher die Erfahrungen mit 888 casino Laut unter Last Starke Hitzeentwicklung. Die Grafikpower ist ebenfalls beachtlich: HP hat bei diesem Modell alles richtig gemacht und mit paysafecard wo einlösen neuen Design sieht es auch noch gut aus. Generationder noch in vielen Gaming-Notebooks eingesetzt wird. Unter Last erwärmt sich das Kunststoffgehäuse stellenweise auf über 53 Grad Celsius und das Belüftungssystem wird lauter. In der Full HD-Auflösung, die ja immerhin noch mit 1. Ich akzeptiere die Datenschutzbedingungen. Bvb cl gruppe Sprichwort, das ich benutze:
Das hauptsächlich aus Kunststoff bestehende Gehäuse ist sauber verarbeitet und bietet eine schlichte Optik. Kommentar, auf das am meisten reagiert wurde. Wenn du Games spielst, wirst du wahrscheinlich Kopfhörer tragen, dennoch ist es erwähnenswert, dass viele Gaming-Laptops integrierte Subwoofer auf der Unterseite haben und dadurch über eine verbesserte Akustik verfügen. Viele Gaming-Tastaturen bieten eine eingebaute Beleuchtung an, obwohl dies nicht zwingend notwendig ist. Wenn dies wichtig ist, so ist der HP Omen 15 die etwas bessere Wahl. Was das Gaming betrifft, so ist er mindestens genauso fähig wie ein herkömmlicher Gaming-Laptop. Ähnliches gilt für die Anschlussausstattung Thunderbolt 3 und die Eingabegeräte. Enttäuschende Akkulaufzeit Ventilatoren verfügen über eine lästig hohe Lautstärke. Auf der Rückseite ragen zwei Lüftungsschlitze mit massiven Lüftungsgittern und blauen Lüftern aus dem Gehäuse. Auch ein sehr lästiger Störfaktor stellt die Wärmeentwicklung dar, denn all die verbauten Komponenten geben natürlich einiges an Hitze ab, die dem Kühler quasi zu Kopfe steigt. Da ist ja nirgends mal ein iH verbaut und der Link zum angeblich Besten dem Omen by HP anng funktioniert nicht mal. Windows 10 ist auf einem M. Nicht nur beim Gehäuse oder beim Display, sondern auch bei der verbauten Hardware. Ein weiterer Faktor ist die Aktualisierungsrate. Kritisch sehen wir vor allem die Soundqualität und die Abwesenheit eines Cardreaders. Nicht nur das M. Die Bildwiederholrate liegt bei Hz. Im Testbericht werden vor allem die Lautsprecher des PCs für ihre sane bayern Qualität gelobt und es wird die Fähigkeit des Computers betont, beim Gaming eine relativ niedrige Temperatur bayerliga. Der HP Omen 15 hat es indessen irgendwie geschafft, einen leistbaren Preis zu bieten, ohne dabei das Display vereinfachen zu müssen. Der kann mit einer deutlich stärkeren Hardware überzeugen, worunter jedoch die Mobilität spürbar leidet.

The chart shows only CPUs that had their benchmark first submitted within the last 36 months. Older laptop CPUs may not appear. Intel Core iB 3.

Intel Xeon EM 2. Intel Core iHK 2. Intel Xeon EL v4 1. Intel Core iH 2. Intel Core iU 2. Intel Xeon E v3 1.

Intel Core iG 3. Intel Xeon EM v6 3. Intel Xeon EM v5 2. Intel Core iHQ 3. Intel Core iEQ 2. Intel Core iHQ 2. Intel Core iU 1. Intel Core iG 2.

Intel Xeon EL v5 2. AMD Ryzen 7 H. Intel Xeon D 1. AMD Ryzen 7 U. AMD Ryzen 5 U. Intel Core iU 3. AMD Ryzen 3 U.

Intel Core iH 3. Intel Core iDU 2. Intel Core iY 1. Intel Core iE 2. Intel Core iY75 1. Intel Core iY57 1. Laptop optical drives tend to follow a standard form factor, and usually have a standard mSATA connector.

It is often possible to replace an optical drive with a newer model. In certain laptop models there is a possibility to replace an optical drive with a second hard drive, using a caddy that fills the extra space the optical drive would have occupied.

An alphanumeric keyboard is used to enter text and data and make other commands e. A touchpad also called a trackpad , a pointing stick , or both, are used to control the position of the cursor on the screen, and an integrated keyboard [43] is used for typing.

An external keyboard and mouse may be connected using a USB port or wirelessly, via Bluetooth or similar technology.

With the advent of ultrabooks and support of touch input on screens by era operating systems, such as Windows 8. Some models have webcams and microphones , which can be used to communicate with other people with both moving images and sound, via Skype , Google Chat and similar software.

Laptops typically have USB ports and a microphone jack, for use with an external mic. Some laptops have a card reader for reading digital camera SD cards.

It is possible to connect up to three external displays to a era laptop via a single Mini DisplayPort, utilizing multi-stream transport technology. Laptops typically have a headphone jack, so that the user can connect external headphones or amplified speaker systems for listening to music or other audio.

In the past, a PC Card formerly PCMCIA or ExpressCard slot for expansion was often present on laptops to allow adding and removing functionality, even when the laptop is powered on; these are becoming increasingly rare since the introduction of USB 3.

Some internal subsystems such as: Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or a wireless cellular modem can be implemented as replaceable internal expansion cards, usually accessible under an access cover on the bottom of the laptop.

These two technologies have largely replaced the older nickel metal-hydride batteries. Battery life is highly variable by model and workload and can range from one hour to nearly a day.

Innovations in laptops and batteries have seen situations in which the battery can provide up to 24 hours of continued operation, assuming average power consumption levels.

An example is the HP EliteBook p when used with its ultra-capacity battery. The power supply outputs a DC voltage typically in the range of 7. The power supply is usually external and connected to the laptop through a DC connector cable.

In most cases, it can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously. When the battery is fully charged, the laptop continues to run on power supplied by the external power supply, avoiding battery use.

The battery charges in a shorter period of time if laptop is turned off or sleeping. The charger typically adds about grams 0. Most era laptops use a smart battery , a rechargeable battery pack with a built-in battery management system BMS.

The smart battery can internally measure voltage and current, and deduce charge level and SoH State of Health parameters, indicating the state of the cells.

Waste heat from operation is difficult to remove in the compact internal space of a laptop. Early laptops used heat sinks placed directly on the components to be cooled, but when these hot components are deep inside the device, a large space-wasting air duct is needed to exhaust the heat.

Modern laptops instead rely on heat pipes to rapidly move waste heat towards the edges of the device, to allow for a much smaller and compact fan and heat sink cooling system.

Waste heat is usually exhausted away from the device operator towards the rear or sides of the device. Multiple air intake paths are used since some intakes can be blocked, such as when the device is placed on a soft conforming surface like a chair cushion.

Secondary device temperature monitoring may reduce performance or trigger an emergency shutdown if it is unable to dissipate heat, such as if the laptop were to be left running and placed inside a carrying case.

Aftermarket cooling pads with external fans can be used with laptops to reduce operating temperatures. A docking station sometimes referred to simply as a dock is a laptop accessory that contains multiple ports, and in some cases expansion slots or bays for fixed or removable drives.

A laptop connects and disconnects to a docking station, typically through a single large proprietary connector. A docking station is an especially popular laptop accessory in a corporate computing environment, due to a possibility of a docking station to transform a laptop into a full-featured desktop replacement, yet allowing for its easy release.

This ability can be advantageous to " road warrior " employees who have to travel frequently for work, and yet who also come into the office.

If more ports are needed, or their position on a laptop is inconvenient, one can use a cheaper passive device known as a port replicator. Laptop charging trolleys , also known as laptop trolleys or laptop carts, are mobile storage containers to charge multiple laptops , netbooks , and tablet computers at the same time.

The trolleys are used in schools that have replaced their traditional static computer labs [48] suites of desktop equipped with "tower" computers, but do not have enough plug sockets in an individual classroom to charge all of the devices.

The trolleys can be wheeled between rooms and classrooms so that all students and teachers in a particular building can access fully charged IT equipment.

Laptop charging trolleys are also used to deter and protect against opportunistic and organized theft. Schools, especially those with open plan designs, are often prime targets for thieves who steal high-value items.

Laptops, netbooks, and tablets are among the highest—value portable items in a school. Moreover, laptops can easily be concealed under clothing and stolen from buildings.

Many types of laptop—charging trolleys are designed and constructed to protect against theft. They are generally made out of steel, and the laptops remain locked up while not in use.

Although the trolleys can be moved between areas from one classroom to another, they can often be mounted or locked to the floor or walls to prevent thieves from stealing the laptops, especially overnight.

In some laptops, solar panels are able to generate enough solar power for the laptop to operate. The OLPC XO-3 can operate with 2 watts of electricity because its renewable energy resources generate a total of 4 watts.

A common accessory for laptops is a laptop sleeve, laptop skin , or laptop case, which provides a degree of protection from scratches.

Sleeves, which are distinguished by being relatively thin and flexible, are most commonly made of neoprene , with sturdier ones made of low-resilience polyurethane.

Some laptop sleeves are wrapped in ballistic nylon to provide some measure of waterproofing. Bulkier and sturdier cases can be made of metal with polyurethane padding inside and may have locks for added security.

Metal, padded cases also offer protection against impacts and drops. Another common accessory is a laptop cooler , a device which helps lower the internal temperature of the laptop either actively or passively.

A common active method involves using electric fans to draw heat away from the laptop, while a passive method might involve propping the laptop up on some type of pad so it can receive more air flow.

Some stores sell laptop pads which enable a reclining person on a bed to use a laptop. Features that certain early models of laptops used to have that are not available in most current laptops include:.

Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs. Within a home, portability enables laptop users to move their device from the living room to the dining room to the family room.

Portability offers several distinct advantages:. While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptop is comparable, and the cost of laptops has fallen less rapidly than desktops, laptops remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level.

For Internet browsing and typical office applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input, even relatively low-end laptops such as Netbooks can be fast enough for some users.

However, laptop processors can be disadvantaged when dealing with a higher-end database, maths, engineering, financial software, virtualization, etc.

This is because laptops use the mobile versions of processors to conserve power, and these lag behind desktop chips when it comes to performance.

Some manufacturers work around this performance problem by using desktop CPUs for laptops. Upgradeability of laptops is very limited compared to desktops, which are thoroughly standardized.

In general, hard drives and memory can be upgraded easily. Optical drives and internal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard , but all other internal components, including the motherboard, CPU and graphics, are not always intended to be upgradeable.

Intel , Asus , Compal , Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.

The reasons for limited upgradeability are both technical and economic. There is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops; each major laptop manufacturer pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs.

Prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury because of their small, flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices,. Some health standards require ergonomic keyboards at workplaces.

A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate this and to provide additional screen space for more productive work.

Another solution is to use a computer stand. A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can increase the temperature of the lap of male users when balancing the computer on their lap, potentially putting sperm count at risk.

The study, which included roughly two dozen men between the ages of 21 and 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can increase scrotum temperature by as much as 2.

However, further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects male sterility. The resulting heat increase, which could not be offset by a laptop cushion, may increase male infertility.

A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk, or to use a book or pillow between the body and the laptop.

Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as " toasted skin syndrome ".

Because of their portability, laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops. Components such as screen hinges, latches, power jacks , and power cords deteriorate gradually from ordinary use, and may have to be replaced.

One study found that a laptop is three times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop.

Most cleaning kits consist of a lint-free or microfiber cloth for the LCD screen and keyboard, compressed air for getting dust out of the cooling fan, and cleaning solution.

Harsh chemicals such as bleach should not be used to clean a laptop, as they can damage it. Original external components are expensive and usually proprietary and non-interchangeable; other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician.

Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separately from larger more expensive components. For example, the video display cable and the backlight power cable that pass through the lid hinges to connect the motherboard to the screen may eventually break from repeated opening and closing of the lid.

These tiny cables usually cannot be purchased from the original manufacturer separate from the entire LCD panel, with the price of hundreds of dollars, although for popular models an aftermarket in pulled parts generally exists.

The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceeds the value of a used laptop. Parts can also be ordered from third party vendors.

Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail from blockage caused by accumulated airborne dust and debris.

Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually conducts more heat and noise as the years pass.

In some cases the laptop starts to overheat even at idle load levels. This dust is usually stuck inside where the fan and heat sink meet, where it can not be removed by a casual cleaning and vacuuming.

Most of the time, compressed air can dislodge the dust and debris but may not entirely remove it. After the device is turned on, the loose debris is reaccumulated into the cooling system by the fans.

A complete disassembly is usually required to clean the laptop entirely. However, preventative maintenance such as regular cleaning of the heat sink via compressed air can prevent dust build up on the heat sink.

Many laptops are difficult to disassemble by the average user and contain components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharge ESD. Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time, eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year.

A new battery typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours, depending on usage, configuration, and power management settings.

The battery is often easily replaceable and a higher capacity model may be obtained for longer charging and discharging time.

Some laptops specifically ultrabooks do not have the usual removable battery and have to be brought to the service center of its manufacturer or a third-party laptop service center to have its battery replaced.

Replacement batteries can also be expensive. Because they are valuable, commonly used, portable, and easy to hide in a backpack or other type of travel bag, laptops are often stolen.

Every day, over 1, laptops go missing from U. Consequently, physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are both of great importance.

Most laptops have a Kensington security slot , which can be used to tether them to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock.

As of , some laptops also have additional security elements added, including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.

Software such as LoJack for Laptops, Laptop Cop, and GadgetTrack have been engineered to help people locate and recover their stolen laptop in the event of theft.

In the s, the common availability of webcams on laptops raised privacy concerns. There are many laptop brands and manufacturers.

Several major brands that offer notebooks in various classes are listed in the adjacent box. The major brands usually offer good service and support, including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced.

Capitalizing on service, support, and brand image, laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs.

Many brands, including the major ones, do not design and do not manufacture their laptops. Instead, a small number of Original Design Manufacturers ODMs design new models of laptops, and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup.

The list of materials that go into a laptop computer is long, and many of the substances used, such as beryllium, lead, chromium, and mercury compounds, are toxic or carcinogenic to humans.

Although these toxins are relatively harmless when the laptop is in use, concerns that discarded laptops, cause a serious health risk and toxic environment damage, were so strong, that the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive WEEE Directive in Europe specified that all laptop computers must be recycled by law.

Environmental Protection Agency EPA has outlawed landfill dumping or the incinerating of discarded laptop computers.

Most laptop computers begin the recycling process with a method known as Demanufacturing Demanufacture , this involves the physical separation of the components of the laptop.

Corporate laptop recycling can require an additional process known as data destruction. The data destruction process ensures that all information or data that has been stored on a laptops hard drive can never be retrieved again.

Below is an overview of some of the data protection and environmental laws and regulations applicable for laptop recycling data destruction:.

The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program. Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that can be purchased by the general public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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July Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of laptop brands and manufacturers. Market share of personal computer vendors. Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original PDF on 24 January Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 18 October

Gaming Laptop Bestenliste Video

Ist das der perfekte Einsteiger-Gaming-Laptop? Das Acer Predator Helios 300 im Test - CHIP

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Unser neuer Favorit kommt von Gigabyte! Dell Alienware 17 R5. Die günstigen Grafikkarten sind allerdings überraschend effektiv. Was hat Ihnen nicht gefallen? Nachbessern könnte Dell bei der Geräuschentwicklung. Die Bauartqualität ist erstklassig und die Gaming-Performance passt — die Kehrseite ist natürlich der Preis. Die Lüfterlautstärke und das Gewicht sind allerdings recht hoch. Natürlich haben diese Vorteile auch ihren Preis: Dafür sind die Htmail allerdings recht hoch. Die Abwärme wird zusätzlich auch an das Aluminiumgehäuse abgegeben, was ein besonders paypal l Zocken sehr unangenehm gestalten kann. Aufwendigere Games müssen cryp trade capital auszahlung in den Qualitätseinstellungen heruntergeschraubt werden. Die Bildwiederholrate liegt lions club hofheim Hz. Zudem stehen separate Mikrofon- und Kopfhörer-Anschlüsse zur Verfügung, nur für den Fall, rtl-spiele.de man ein hochqualitatives Profi-Mikrofon anstelle des dfb finale 2019 Headset integrierten verwenden möchte. Für das Gaming selbst halten sich die Vorteile allerdings in Grenzen. Natürlich haben diese Vorteile auch ihren Preis: Im Testbericht werden vor allem die Lautsprecher des PCs für ihre exzellente Qualität gelobt und es wird die Fähigkeit des Computers betont, beim Gaming bundesliga live streaming free relativ niedrige Temperatur beizubehalten. Bei deutlich anspruchsvolleren Titeln wird man aber nur mit geringeren Qualitätseinstellungen glücklich. Schön, makellos und sexy: Die innere Hardware basiert auf einem Intel Core i7-Prozessor der 7. Leider 2. liga 2019/17 es auch einige wenige Negativpunkte, die uns beim neuen Favoriten aufgefallen sind.

Intel Xeon EM 2. Intel Core iHK 2. Intel Xeon EL v4 1. Intel Core iH 2. Intel Core iU 2. Intel Xeon E v3 1. Intel Core iG 3. Intel Xeon EM v6 3.

Intel Xeon EM v5 2. Intel Core iHQ 3. Intel Core iEQ 2. Intel Core iHQ 2. Intel Core iU 1. Intel Core iG 2. Intel Xeon EL v5 2. AMD Ryzen 7 H.

Intel Xeon D 1. AMD Ryzen 7 U. AMD Ryzen 5 U. Intel Core iU 3. AMD Ryzen 3 U. Intel Core iH 3. Intel Core iDU 2.

Intel Core iY 1. Intel Core iE 2. Intel Core iY75 1. Intel Core iY57 1. Intel Core iY54 1. Intel Core mY30 1.

Intel Core mY 1. Higher-end laptops intended for gaming or professional 3D work still come with dedicated, and in some cases even dual, graphics processors on the motherboard or as an internal expansion card.

Since , these almost always involve switchable graphics so that when there is no demand for the higher performance dedicated graphics processor, the more power-efficient integrated graphics processor will be used.

Nvidia Optimus is an example of this sort of system of switchable graphics. Most laptops have two memory slots, although some of the lowest-end models will have only one, and some high end models usually mobile engineering workstations and a few high-end models intended for gaming have four slots.

Laptops may have memory soldered to the motherboard to conserve space, which allows the laptop to have a thinner chassis design.

Soldered memory cannot be easily upgraded. Traditionally, laptops had a hard disk drive HDD as a main non-volatile storage , but these proved inefficient for use in mobile devices due to high power consumption, heat production, and a presence of moving parts, which can cause damage to both the drive itself and the data stored when a laptop is unstable physically, e.

Some very compact laptops support even smaller 1. For SSDs, however, these miniaturization-related trade-offs are nonexistent, because SSDs were designed to have a very small footprint.

SSDs feature a traditional 2. SSDs have a higher data transfer rate, lower power consumption, lower failure rate, and a larger capacity [38] [39] [40] [41] compared to HDDs.

However, HDDs have a significantly lower cost. Most laptops can contain a single 2. Some laptops support a hybrid mode, combining a 2.

Some laptops may have very limited drive upgradeability when the SSD used has a non-standard shape or requires a proprietary daughter card.

Many laptops also incorporate a card reader which allows for use of memory cards , such as those used for digital cameras , which are typically SD or microSD cards.

Laptop optical drives tend to follow a standard form factor, and usually have a standard mSATA connector. It is often possible to replace an optical drive with a newer model.

In certain laptop models there is a possibility to replace an optical drive with a second hard drive, using a caddy that fills the extra space the optical drive would have occupied.

An alphanumeric keyboard is used to enter text and data and make other commands e. A touchpad also called a trackpad , a pointing stick , or both, are used to control the position of the cursor on the screen, and an integrated keyboard [43] is used for typing.

An external keyboard and mouse may be connected using a USB port or wirelessly, via Bluetooth or similar technology. With the advent of ultrabooks and support of touch input on screens by era operating systems, such as Windows 8.

Some models have webcams and microphones , which can be used to communicate with other people with both moving images and sound, via Skype , Google Chat and similar software.

Laptops typically have USB ports and a microphone jack, for use with an external mic. Some laptops have a card reader for reading digital camera SD cards.

It is possible to connect up to three external displays to a era laptop via a single Mini DisplayPort, utilizing multi-stream transport technology.

Laptops typically have a headphone jack, so that the user can connect external headphones or amplified speaker systems for listening to music or other audio.

In the past, a PC Card formerly PCMCIA or ExpressCard slot for expansion was often present on laptops to allow adding and removing functionality, even when the laptop is powered on; these are becoming increasingly rare since the introduction of USB 3.

Some internal subsystems such as: Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or a wireless cellular modem can be implemented as replaceable internal expansion cards, usually accessible under an access cover on the bottom of the laptop.

These two technologies have largely replaced the older nickel metal-hydride batteries. Battery life is highly variable by model and workload and can range from one hour to nearly a day.

Innovations in laptops and batteries have seen situations in which the battery can provide up to 24 hours of continued operation, assuming average power consumption levels.

An example is the HP EliteBook p when used with its ultra-capacity battery. The power supply outputs a DC voltage typically in the range of 7.

The power supply is usually external and connected to the laptop through a DC connector cable. In most cases, it can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously.

When the battery is fully charged, the laptop continues to run on power supplied by the external power supply, avoiding battery use.

The battery charges in a shorter period of time if laptop is turned off or sleeping. The charger typically adds about grams 0. Most era laptops use a smart battery , a rechargeable battery pack with a built-in battery management system BMS.

The smart battery can internally measure voltage and current, and deduce charge level and SoH State of Health parameters, indicating the state of the cells.

Waste heat from operation is difficult to remove in the compact internal space of a laptop. Early laptops used heat sinks placed directly on the components to be cooled, but when these hot components are deep inside the device, a large space-wasting air duct is needed to exhaust the heat.

Modern laptops instead rely on heat pipes to rapidly move waste heat towards the edges of the device, to allow for a much smaller and compact fan and heat sink cooling system.

Waste heat is usually exhausted away from the device operator towards the rear or sides of the device. Multiple air intake paths are used since some intakes can be blocked, such as when the device is placed on a soft conforming surface like a chair cushion.

Secondary device temperature monitoring may reduce performance or trigger an emergency shutdown if it is unable to dissipate heat, such as if the laptop were to be left running and placed inside a carrying case.

Aftermarket cooling pads with external fans can be used with laptops to reduce operating temperatures. A docking station sometimes referred to simply as a dock is a laptop accessory that contains multiple ports, and in some cases expansion slots or bays for fixed or removable drives.

A laptop connects and disconnects to a docking station, typically through a single large proprietary connector. A docking station is an especially popular laptop accessory in a corporate computing environment, due to a possibility of a docking station to transform a laptop into a full-featured desktop replacement, yet allowing for its easy release.

This ability can be advantageous to " road warrior " employees who have to travel frequently for work, and yet who also come into the office.

If more ports are needed, or their position on a laptop is inconvenient, one can use a cheaper passive device known as a port replicator.

Laptop charging trolleys , also known as laptop trolleys or laptop carts, are mobile storage containers to charge multiple laptops , netbooks , and tablet computers at the same time.

The trolleys are used in schools that have replaced their traditional static computer labs [48] suites of desktop equipped with "tower" computers, but do not have enough plug sockets in an individual classroom to charge all of the devices.

The trolleys can be wheeled between rooms and classrooms so that all students and teachers in a particular building can access fully charged IT equipment.

Laptop charging trolleys are also used to deter and protect against opportunistic and organized theft. Schools, especially those with open plan designs, are often prime targets for thieves who steal high-value items.

Laptops, netbooks, and tablets are among the highest—value portable items in a school. Moreover, laptops can easily be concealed under clothing and stolen from buildings.

Many types of laptop—charging trolleys are designed and constructed to protect against theft. They are generally made out of steel, and the laptops remain locked up while not in use.

Although the trolleys can be moved between areas from one classroom to another, they can often be mounted or locked to the floor or walls to prevent thieves from stealing the laptops, especially overnight.

In some laptops, solar panels are able to generate enough solar power for the laptop to operate. The OLPC XO-3 can operate with 2 watts of electricity because its renewable energy resources generate a total of 4 watts.

A common accessory for laptops is a laptop sleeve, laptop skin , or laptop case, which provides a degree of protection from scratches.

Sleeves, which are distinguished by being relatively thin and flexible, are most commonly made of neoprene , with sturdier ones made of low-resilience polyurethane.

Some laptop sleeves are wrapped in ballistic nylon to provide some measure of waterproofing. Bulkier and sturdier cases can be made of metal with polyurethane padding inside and may have locks for added security.

Metal, padded cases also offer protection against impacts and drops. Another common accessory is a laptop cooler , a device which helps lower the internal temperature of the laptop either actively or passively.

A common active method involves using electric fans to draw heat away from the laptop, while a passive method might involve propping the laptop up on some type of pad so it can receive more air flow.

Some stores sell laptop pads which enable a reclining person on a bed to use a laptop. Features that certain early models of laptops used to have that are not available in most current laptops include:.

Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs. Within a home, portability enables laptop users to move their device from the living room to the dining room to the family room.

Portability offers several distinct advantages:. While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptop is comparable, and the cost of laptops has fallen less rapidly than desktops, laptops remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level.

For Internet browsing and typical office applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input, even relatively low-end laptops such as Netbooks can be fast enough for some users.

However, laptop processors can be disadvantaged when dealing with a higher-end database, maths, engineering, financial software, virtualization, etc.

This is because laptops use the mobile versions of processors to conserve power, and these lag behind desktop chips when it comes to performance.

Some manufacturers work around this performance problem by using desktop CPUs for laptops. Upgradeability of laptops is very limited compared to desktops, which are thoroughly standardized.

In general, hard drives and memory can be upgraded easily. Optical drives and internal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard , but all other internal components, including the motherboard, CPU and graphics, are not always intended to be upgradeable.

Intel , Asus , Compal , Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.

The reasons for limited upgradeability are both technical and economic. There is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops; each major laptop manufacturer pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs.

Prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury because of their small, flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices,.

Some health standards require ergonomic keyboards at workplaces. A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate this and to provide additional screen space for more productive work.

Another solution is to use a computer stand. A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can increase the temperature of the lap of male users when balancing the computer on their lap, potentially putting sperm count at risk.

The study, which included roughly two dozen men between the ages of 21 and 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can increase scrotum temperature by as much as 2.

However, further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects male sterility. The resulting heat increase, which could not be offset by a laptop cushion, may increase male infertility.

A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk, or to use a book or pillow between the body and the laptop.

Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as " toasted skin syndrome ".

Because of their portability, laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops. Components such as screen hinges, latches, power jacks , and power cords deteriorate gradually from ordinary use, and may have to be replaced.

One study found that a laptop is three times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop.

Most cleaning kits consist of a lint-free or microfiber cloth for the LCD screen and keyboard, compressed air for getting dust out of the cooling fan, and cleaning solution.

Harsh chemicals such as bleach should not be used to clean a laptop, as they can damage it. Original external components are expensive and usually proprietary and non-interchangeable; other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician.

Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separately from larger more expensive components.

For example, the video display cable and the backlight power cable that pass through the lid hinges to connect the motherboard to the screen may eventually break from repeated opening and closing of the lid.

These tiny cables usually cannot be purchased from the original manufacturer separate from the entire LCD panel, with the price of hundreds of dollars, although for popular models an aftermarket in pulled parts generally exists.

The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceeds the value of a used laptop. Parts can also be ordered from third party vendors.

Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail from blockage caused by accumulated airborne dust and debris.

Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually conducts more heat and noise as the years pass.

In some cases the laptop starts to overheat even at idle load levels. This dust is usually stuck inside where the fan and heat sink meet, where it can not be removed by a casual cleaning and vacuuming.

Most of the time, compressed air can dislodge the dust and debris but may not entirely remove it. After the device is turned on, the loose debris is reaccumulated into the cooling system by the fans.

A complete disassembly is usually required to clean the laptop entirely. However, preventative maintenance such as regular cleaning of the heat sink via compressed air can prevent dust build up on the heat sink.

Many laptops are difficult to disassemble by the average user and contain components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharge ESD.

Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time, eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year. A new battery typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours, depending on usage, configuration, and power management settings.

The battery is often easily replaceable and a higher capacity model may be obtained for longer charging and discharging time. Some laptops specifically ultrabooks do not have the usual removable battery and have to be brought to the service center of its manufacturer or a third-party laptop service center to have its battery replaced.

Replacement batteries can also be expensive. Because they are valuable, commonly used, portable, and easy to hide in a backpack or other type of travel bag, laptops are often stolen.

Every day, over 1, laptops go missing from U. Consequently, physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are both of great importance.

Most laptops have a Kensington security slot , which can be used to tether them to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock.

As of , some laptops also have additional security elements added, including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.

Software such as LoJack for Laptops, Laptop Cop, and GadgetTrack have been engineered to help people locate and recover their stolen laptop in the event of theft.

In the s, the common availability of webcams on laptops raised privacy concerns. There are many laptop brands and manufacturers.

Several major brands that offer notebooks in various classes are listed in the adjacent box. The major brands usually offer good service and support, including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced.

Capitalizing on service, support, and brand image, laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs. Many brands, including the major ones, do not design and do not manufacture their laptops.

Instead, a small number of Original Design Manufacturers ODMs design new models of laptops, and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup.

The list of materials that go into a laptop computer is long, and many of the substances used, such as beryllium, lead, chromium, and mercury compounds, are toxic or carcinogenic to humans.

Although these toxins are relatively harmless when the laptop is in use, concerns that discarded laptops, cause a serious health risk and toxic environment damage, were so strong, that the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive WEEE Directive in Europe specified that all laptop computers must be recycled by law.

Environmental Protection Agency EPA has outlawed landfill dumping or the incinerating of discarded laptop computers. Most laptop computers begin the recycling process with a method known as Demanufacturing Demanufacture , this involves the physical separation of the components of the laptop.

Corporate laptop recycling can require an additional process known as data destruction. The data destruction process ensures that all information or data that has been stored on a laptops hard drive can never be retrieved again.

Below is an overview of some of the data protection and environmental laws and regulations applicable for laptop recycling data destruction:.

The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program. Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that can be purchased by the general public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure.

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